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T.Heimburg, P.Hildebrandt and D.Marsh. 1991. Cytochrome c-lipid interactions studied by resonance Raman and 31P-NMR spectroscopy. Correlation between the conformational changes of the protein and the lipid bilayer. Biochemistry 30: 9084 abstract08

Abstract: The interaction of cytochrome c with negatively charged lipids has been studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy of the protein heme group and P-31 NMR of the phospholipid headgroups. The gel-to-fluid-phase transition of dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol induces shifts in the conformational and coordination equilibria of the bound cytochrome c, as recorded by the resonance Raman spectra in the fingerprint and marker band regions. Conformational and coordination shifts of the bound cytochrome are also induced on admixture of dioleoylglycerol or dioleoylphosphatidylcholine with dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol. In the case of dioleoylglycerol, significant changes take place even at levels as low as 5 mol %. Binding of cytochrome c induces or increases the content of near isotropically diffusing lipid registered by the P-31 NMR spectra of the different lipids studied. Admixture of dioleoylglycerol also increases the bilayer curvature of dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol, inducing an inverted hexagonal phase at 50 mol % concentration; the tendency to spontaneous curvature in the lipid appears to relax the conformational change detected in the protein.