Does polymorphisms in PPAR and APOE genes modify associations between FADS, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cardiometabolic markers in 8-11 year-old Danish children?
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n-3 Long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) can improve cardiometabolic blood markers but studies in children are limited. SNP in the FADS genes, which encode fatty acid desaturases, influence endogenous LCPUFA production. Moreover, SNP in genes that encode PPAR and apoE may modulate the effects of n-3 LCPUFA. We explored whether FADS polymorphisms were associated with blood cholesterol and TAG, insulin and glucose and whether polymorphisms in PPAR and APOE modified associations between FADS or n-3 LCPUFA status and the cardiometabolic blood markers. We measured fasting cholesterol and TAG, insulin, glucose and n-3 LCPUFA in 757 Danish 8-11-year-old children and genotyped SNP in FADS (rs1535 and rs174448), PPARG2 (rs1801282), PPARA (rs1800206) and APOE (rs7412+rs429358). Carriage of two FADS rs174448 major alleles was associated with lower TAG (P=0.027) and higher HDL-cholesterol (P=0.047). Blood n-3 LCPUFA was inversely associated with TAG and insulin in PPARG2 minor allele carriers and positively with LDL-cholesterol in major allele homozygotes (Pn-3LCPUFA×rs180182<0.01). Associations between n-3 LCPUFA and cardiometabolic markers were not modified by APOE genotype (Pn-3LCPUFA×APOE>0.11), but interaction between FADS rs1535 and APOE showed that rs1535 major allele homozygotes who also carried APOE2 had higher HDL-cholesterol than all other genotype combinations (Prs1535×APOE =0.019, pairwise-P<0.05). This indicates that FADS genotypes, which increase endogenous LCPUFA production, may beneficially affect children's cardiometabolic profile in a partly APOE-dependent manner. Also, the degree to which children benefit from higher n-3 LCPUFA intake may depend on their PPARG2 genotype.
|Journal||British Journal of Nutrition|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 27 Jul 2020|
- Faculty of Science - TAG, Cholesterol, Insulin, Glucose, PUFA, Genotypes, Single nucleotide polymorphism, EPA, DHA