Article on 'primordial fluid' has 500 citations in record time – Niels Bohr Institute - University of Copenhagen

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16 March 2009

Article on 'primordial fluid' has 500 citations in record time

The article entitled“Quark Gluon Plasma and Color Glass Condensate at RHIC? The Perspective from the BRAHMS Experiment”  which appeared in 2005 in Nuclear Physics A has accumulated 500 citations in record time and thus entered the select club of ’renowned papers’ according to the international database SPIRES.

"The article summarizes the results from the first 3 years of experiments with the BRAHMS detector at the superconducting RHIC accelerator in the USA. RHIC (the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) is  the first collider for atomic nuclei", says Professor Jens Jørgen Gaardhøje from the HEHI group at the Niels Bohr Institute, who was responsible for the article and who has led the experiment together with F. Videbaek from Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY.

The figure shows traces from the particles formed
in a collision between two gold nuclei.
(RHIC accelerator)

Primordial fluid
The experiments have shown that in collisions between gold nuclei at ultrarelativistic energies a new state of matter consisting of quarks and gluons is formed for a fleeting moment (approximately 10-23 seconds). This state behaves like a liquid with the temperature of the Universe when it was but a millionth of a second old. The discovery was therefore also quickly coined ’ the primordial fluid’ by the media. The experiments also suggested a new state of the colliding nuclei, the so called Color Glass Condensate, which may the thought of as a Bose-Einstein condensate  consisting of the particles that mediate the strong interaction, the gluons.

Both phenomena will be studied in greater detail with the ALICE experiment at CERN’s new 27 km long LHC (Large Hadron Collider) accelerator, where the HEHI group has a central role and has constructed detectors to study particle production and the Color Glass Condensate.  The new physics phenomena that are expected at the LHC will also be studied at the new DISCOVERY center established by the Danish Basic Research Foundation.

Reference (SPIRES):
Quark gluon plasma and color glass condensate at RHIC? The Perspective from the BRAHMS experiment.
By BRAHMS Collaboration (I. Arsene et al.). Oct 2004. 32pp.
Published in Nucl.Phys.A757:1-27,2005.
e-Print: nucl-ex/0410020